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AA20-336A: Advanced Persistent Threat Actors Targeting U.S. Think Tanks

US-CERT - Tue, 2020-12-01 10:00
Original release date: December 1, 2020<br/><h3>Summary</h3><p class="tip-intro" style="font-size: 15px;"><em>This Advisory uses the MITRE Adversarial Tactics, Techniques, and Common Knowledge (ATT&amp;CK®) framework. See the <a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/enterprise/">ATT&amp;CK for Enterprise</a> for all referenced threat actor tactics and techniques.</em></p> <p>The Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA) and the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) have observed persistent continued cyber intrusions by advanced persistent threat (APT) actors targeting U.S. think tanks. This malicious activity is often, but not exclusively, directed at individuals and organizations that focus on international affairs or national security policy.[<a href="https://www.cyberscoop.com/european-think-tanks-hack-microsoft-fancy-bear-russia/">1</a>] The following guidance may assist U.S. think tanks in developing network defense procedures to prevent or rapidly detect these attacks.</p> <p>APT actors have relied on multiple avenues for initial access. These have included low-effort capabilities such as spearphishing emails and third-party message services directed at both corporate and personal accounts, as well as exploiting vulnerable web-facing devices and remote connection capabilities. Increased telework during the COVID-19 pandemic has expanded workforce reliance on remote connectivity, affording malicious actors more opportunities to exploit those connections and to blend in with increased traffic. Attackers may leverage virtual private networks (VPNs) and other remote work tools to gain initial access or persistence on a victim’s network. When successful, these low-effort, high-reward approaches allow threat actors to steal sensitive information, acquire user credentials, and gain persistent access to victim networks.</p> <p>Given the importance that think tanks can have in shaping U.S. policy, CISA and FBI urge individuals and organizations in the international affairs and national security sectors to immediately adopt a heightened state of awareness and implement the critical steps listed in the Mitigations section of this Advisory.</p> <p><a href="https://us-cert.cisa.gov/sites/default/files/publications/AA20-336A-APT_Actors_Targeting_US_ThinkTanks.pdf">Click here</a> for a PDF version of this report.</p> <h3>Technical Details</h3><h4>ATT&amp;CK Profile</h4> <p>CISA created the following MITRE ATT&amp;CK profile to provide a non-exhaustive list of tactics, techniques, and procedures (TTPs) employed by APT actors to break through think tanks’ defenses, conduct reconnaissance in their environments, exfiltrate proprietary or confidential information, and execute effects on targets. These TTPs were included based upon closed reporting on APT actors that are known to target think tanks or based upon CISA incident response data.</p> <ul> <li><em><strong>Initial Access</strong></em> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/tactics/TA0001">TA0001</a>] <ul> <li><i>Valid Accounts </i>[<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1078/">T1078</a>]</li> <li><i>Valid Accounts: Cloud Accounts </i>[<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1078/004/">T1078.004</a>]</li> <li><i>External Remote Services </i>[<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1133/">T1133</a>]</li> <li><i>Drive-by Compromise</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1189">T1189</a>]</li> <li><i>Exploit Public-Facing Application</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1190">T1190</a>] <ul> <li><i>Supply Chain Compromise: Compromise Software Supply Chain</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1195/002">T1195.002</a>]</li> <li><i>Trusted Relationship</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1199">T1199</a>]</li> <li><i>Phishing: Spearphishing Attachment</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1566/001">T1566.001</a>]</li> <li><i>Phishing: Spearphishing Link</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1566/002">T1566.002</a>]</li> <li><i>Phishing: Spearphishing via Service</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1566/003">T1566.003</a>]</li> </ul> </li> </ul> </li> <li><i><em><strong>Execution</strong></em></i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/tactics/TA0002">TA0002</a>] <ul> <li><i>Windows Management Instrumentation </i>[<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1047">T1047</a>]</li> <li><i>Scheduled Task/Job: Scheduled Task </i>[<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1053/005">T1053.005</a>]</li> <li><i>Command and Scripting Interpreter: PowerShell </i>[<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1059/001">T1059.001</a>]</li> <li><i>Command and Scripting Interpreter: Windows Command Shell</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1059/003">T1059.003</a>]</li> <li><i>Command and Scripting Interpreter: Unix Shell</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1059/004">T1059.004</a>]</li> <li><i>Command and Scripting Interpreter: Visual Basic </i>[<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1059/005">T1059.005</a>]</li> <li><i>Command and Scripting Interpreter: Python </i>[<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1059/006">T1059.006</a>]</li> <li><i>Native API </i>[<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1106">T1106</a>]</li> <li><i>Exploitation for Client Execution</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1203">T1203</a>]</li> <li><i>User Execution: Malicious Link </i>[<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1204/001">T1204.001</a>]</li> <li><i>User Execution: Malicious File</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1204/002">T1204.002</a>]</li> <li><i>Inter-Process Communication: Dynamic Data Exchange </i>[<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1559/002/">T1559.002</a>]</li> <li><i>System Services: Service Execution </i>[<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1569/002">T1569.002</a>]</li> </ul> </li> <li><i><em><strong>Persistence</strong></em></i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/tactics/TA0003">TA0003</a>] <ul> <li><i>Boot or Logon Initialization Scripts: Logon Script (Windows)</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1037/001">T1037.001</a>]</li> <li><i>Scheduled Task/Job: Scheduled Task</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1053/005">T1053.005</a>]</li> <li><i>Account Manipulation: Exchange Email Delegate Permissions </i>[<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1098/002">T1098.002</a>]</li> <li><i>Create Account: Local Account</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1136/001">T1136.001</a>]</li> <li><i>Office Application Startup: Office Test </i>[<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1137/002">T1137.002</a>]</li> <li><i>Office Application Startup: Outlook Home Page</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1137/004">T1137.004</a>]</li> <li><i>Browser Extensions</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1176">T1176</a>]</li> <li><i>BITS Jobs</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1197/">T1197</a>]</li> <li><i>Server Software Component: Web Shell</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1505/003">T1505.003</a>]</li> <li><i>Pre-OS Boot: Bootkit</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1542/003/">T1542.003</a>]</li> <li><i>Create or Modify System Process: Windows Service</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1543/003">T1543.003</a>]</li> <li><i>Event Triggered Execution: Change Default File Association</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1546/001">T1546.001</a>]</li> <li><i>Event Triggered Execution: Windows Management Instrumentation Event Subscription </i>[<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1546/003">T1546.003</a>]</li> <li><i>Event Triggered Execution: Accessibility Features</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1546/008">T1546.008</a>]</li> <li><i>Event Triggered Execution: Component Object Model Hijacking</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1546/015">T1546.015</a>]</li> <li><i>Boot or Logon Autostart Execution: Registry Run Keys / Startup Folder </i>[<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1547/001">T1547.001</a>]</li> <li><i>Boot or Logon Autostart Execution: Shortcut Modification</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1547/009">T1547.009</a>]</li> </ul> </li> <li><i><em><strong>Privilege Escalation</strong></em></i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/tactics/TA0004">TA0004</a>] <ul> <li><i>Process Injection</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1055">T1055</a>]</li> <li><i>Process Injection: Process Hollowing</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1055/012">T1055.012</a>]</li> <li><i>Exploitation for Privilege Escalation</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1068">T1068</a>]</li> <li><i>Access Token Manipulation: Token Impersonation/Theft</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1134/001">T1134.001</a>]</li> <li><i>Event Triggered Execution: Accessibility Features </i>[<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1546/008">T1546.008</a>]</li> <li><i>Boot or Logon Autostart Execution: Shortcut Modification</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1547/009">T1547.009</a>]</li> <li><i>Abuse Elevation Control Mechanism: Bypass User Access Control</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1548/002">T1548.002</a>]</li> <li><i>Hijack Execution Flow: DLL Side-Loading</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1574/002">T1574.002</a>]</li> </ul> </li> <li><i><em><strong>Defense Evasion</strong></em></i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/tactics/TA0005">TA0005</a>] <ul> <li><i>Rootkit</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1014">T1014</a>]</li> <li><i>Obfuscated Files or Information: Binary Padding </i>[<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1027/001">T1027.001</a>]</li> <li><i>Obfuscated Files or Information: Software Packing </i>[<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1027/002">T1027.002</a>]</li> <li><i>Obfuscated Files or Information: Steganography</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1027/003">T1027.003</a>]</li> <li><i>Obfuscated Files or Information: Indicator Removal from Tools</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1027/005">T1027.005</a>]</li> <li><i>Masquerading: Match Legitimate Name or Location</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1036/005">T1036.005</a>]</li> <li><i>Indicator Removal on Host: Clear Windows Event Logs</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1070/001">T1070.001</a>]</li> <li><i>Indicator Removal on Host: Clear Command History</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1070/003">1070.003</a>]</li> <li><i>Indicator Removal on Host: File Deletion</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1070/004">T1070.004</a>]</li> <li><i>Indicator Removal on Host: Timestomp</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1070/006">T1070.006</a>]</li> <li><i>Modify Registry</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1112">T1112</a>]</li> <li><i>Deobfuscate/Decode Files or Information </i>[<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1140">T1140</a>]</li> <li><i>Exploitation for Defense Evasion</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1211">T1211</a>]</li> <li><i>Signed Binary Proxy Execution: Compiled HTML File</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1218/001">T1218.001</a>]</li> <li><i><em>Signed Binary Proxy Execution: Mshta</em></i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1218/005">T1218.005</a>]</li> <li><i>Signed Binary Proxy Execution:<em> Rundll32 </em></i>[<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1218/011">T1218.011</a>]</li> <li><i>Template Injection</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1221">T1221</a>]</li> <li><i>Execution Guardrails: Environmental Keying</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1480/001">T1480.001</a>]</li> <li><i>Abuse Elevation Control Mechanism: Bypass User Access Control</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1548/002">T1548.002</a>]</li> <li><i>Use Alternate Authentication Material: Application Access Token</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1550/001">T1550.001</a>]</li> <li><i>Subvert Trust Controls: Code Signing</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1553/002">T1553.002</a>]</li> <li><i>Impair Defenses: Disable or Modify Tools</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1562/001">T1562.001</a>]</li> <li><i>Impair Defenses: Disable or Modify System Firewall</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1562/004">T1562.004</a>]</li> <li><i>Hide Artifacts: Hidden Files and Directories </i>[<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1564/001">T1564.001</a>]</li> <li><i>Hide Artifacts: Hidden Window</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1564/003">T1564.003</a>]</li> </ul> </li> <li><i><em><strong>Credential Access</strong></em> </i>[<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/tactics/TA0006">TA0006</a>] <ul> <li><i>OS Credential Dumping: LSASS Memory</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1003/001">T1003.001</a>]</li> <li><i>OS Credential Dumping: Security Account Manager </i>[<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1003/002">T1003.002</a>]</li> <li><i>OS Credential Dumping: NTDS</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1003/003">T1003.003</a>]</li> <li><i>OS Credential Dumping: LSA Secrets</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1003/004">T1003.004</a>]</li> <li><i>OS Credential Dumping: Cached Domain Credentials</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1003/005">T1003.005</a>]</li> <li><i>Network Sniffing</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1040">T1040</a>]</li> <li><i>Input Capture: Keylogging</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1056/001">T1056.001</a>]</li> <li><i>Brute Force: Password Cracking</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1110/002">T1110.002</a>]<i>Brute Force: Password Spraying</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1110/003">T1110.003</a>]</li> <li><i>Forced Authentication</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1187">T1187</a>]</li> <li><i>Steal Application Access Token</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1528">T1528</a>]</li> <li><i>Unsecured Credentials: Credentials in Files</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1552/001">T1552.001</a>]</li> <li><i>Unsecured Credentials: Group Policy Preferences</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1552/006">T1552.006</a>]</li> <li><i>Credentials from Password Stores: Credentials from Web Browsers</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1555/003">T1555.003</a>]</li> </ul> </li> <li><i><em><strong>Discovery</strong></em> </i>[<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/tactics/TA0007">TA0007</a>] <ul> <li><i>System Service Discovery</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1007">T1007</a>]</li> <li><i>Query Registry</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1012">T1012</a>]</li> <li><i>System Network Configuration Discovery</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1016">T1016</a>]</li> <li><i>Remote System Discovery </i>[<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1018">T1018</a>]</li> <li><i>System Owner/User Discovery</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1033">T1033</a>]</li> <li><i>Network Sniffing</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1040">T1040</a>]</li> <li><i>Network Service Scanning</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1046">T1046</a>]</li> <li><i>System Network Connections Discovery</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1049">T1049</a>]</li> <li><i>Process Discovery</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1057">T1057</a>]</li> <li><i>Permission Groups Discovery: Local Groups</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1069/001">T1069.001</a>]</li> <li><i>Permission Groups Discovery: Domain Groups</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1069/002">T1069.002</a>]</li> <li><i>System Information Discovery</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1082">T1082</a>]</li> <li><i>File and Directory Discovery</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1083">T1083</a>]</li> <li><i>Account Discovery: Local Account</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1087/001">T1087.001</a>]</li> <li><i>Account Discovery: Domain Account</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1087/002">T1087.002</a>]</li> <li><i>Peripheral Device Discovery</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1120">T1120</a>]</li> <li><i>Network Share Discovery</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1135">T1135</a>]</li> <li><i>Password Policy Discovery </i>[<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1201/">T1201</a>]</li> <li><i>Software Discovery: Security Software Discovery</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1518/001">T1518.001</a>]</li> </ul> </li> <li><i><em><strong>Lateral Movement </strong></em></i>[<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/tactics/TA0008">TA0008</a>] <ul> <li><i>Remote Services: Remote Desktop Protocol</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1021/001">T1021.001</a>]</li> <li><i>Remote Services: SSH </i>[<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1021/004">T1021.004</a>]</li> <li><i>Taint Shared Content </i>[<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1080/">T1080</a>]</li> <li><i>Replication Through Removable Media </i>[<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1091">T1091</a>]</li> <li><i>Exploitation of Remote Services</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1210">T1210</a>]</li> <li><i>Use Alternate Authentication Material: Pass the Hash </i>[<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1550/002">T1550.002</a>]</li> <li><i>Use Alternate Authentication Material: Pass the Ticket</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1550/003">T1550.003</a>]</li> </ul> </li> <li><i><em><strong>Collection</strong></em></i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/tactics/TA0009">TA0009</a>] <ul> <li><i>Data from Local System</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1005">T1005</a>]</li> <li><i>Data from Removable Media</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1025">T1025</a>]</li> <li><i>Data Staged: Local Data Staging</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1074/001">T1074.001</a>]</li> <li><i>Screen Capture</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1113">T1113</a>]</li> <li><i>Email Collection: Local Email Collection</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1114/001">T1114.001</a>]</li> <li><i>Email Collection: Remote Email Collection</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1114/002">T1114.002</a>]</li> <li><i>Automated Collection</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1119">T1119</a>]</li> <li><i>Audio Capture</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1123">T1123</a>]</li> <li><i>Data from Information Repositories: SharePoint </i>[<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1213/002">T1213.002</a>]</li> <li><i>Archive Collected Data: Archive via Utility</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1560/001">T1560.001</a>]</li> <li><i>Archive Collected Data: Archive via Custom Method</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1560/003">T1560.003</a>]</li> </ul> </li> <li><i><em><strong>Command and Control</strong></em> </i>[<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/tactics/TA0011">TA0011</a>] <ul> <li><i>Data Obfuscation: Junk Data</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1001/001/">T1001.001</a>]</li> <li><i>Fallback Channels</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1008">T1008</a>]</li> <li><i>Application Layer Protocol: Web Protocols</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1071/001">T1071.001</a>]</li> <li><i>Application Layer Protocol: File Transfer Protocols</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1071/002">T1071.002</a>]</li> <li><i>Application Layer Protocol: Mail Protocols</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1071/003">T1071.003</a>]</li> <li><i>Application Layer Protocol: DNS</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1071/004">T1071.004</a>]</li> <li><i>Proxy: External Proxy</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1090/002">T1090.002</a>]</li> <li><i>Proxy: Multi-hop Proxy</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1090/003">T1090.003</a>]</li> <li><i>Proxy: Domain Fronting</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1090/004">T1090.004</a>]</li> <li><i>Communication Through Removable Media</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1092">T1092</a>]</li> <li><i>Non-Application Layer Protocol</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1095">T1095</a>]</li> <li><i>Web Service: Dead Drop Resolver</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1102/001">T1102.001</a>]</li> <li><i>Web Service: Bidirectional Communication</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1102/002">T1102.002</a>]</li> <li><i>Multi-Stage Channels</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1104">T1104</a>]</li> <li><i>Ingress Tool Transfer</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1105">T1105</a>]</li> <li><i>Data Encoding: Standard Encoding</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1132/001">T1132.001</a>]</li> <li><i>Remote Access Software</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1219">T1219</a>]</li> <li><i>Dynamic Resolution: Domain Generation Algorithms</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1568/002">T1568.002</a>]</li> <li><i>Non-Standard Port</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1571">T1571</a>]</li> <li><i>Protocol Tunneling</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1572">T1572</a>]</li> <li><i>Encrypted Channel: Symmetric Cryptography</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1573/001">T1573.001</a>]</li> <li><i>Encrypted Channel: Asymmetric Cryptography</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1573/002">T1573.002</a>]</li> </ul> </li> <li><i><em><strong><span style="display: none;">&nbsp;</span>Exfiltration</strong> </em></i>[<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/tactics/TA0010">TA0010</a>] <ul> <li><i>Exfiltration Over C2 Channel</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1041">T1041</a>]</li> <li><i>Exfiltration Over Alternative Protocol: Exfiltration Over Unencrypted/Obfuscated Non-C2 Protocol</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1048/003">T1048.003</a>]</li> </ul> </li> <li><i><em><strong>Impact </strong></em></i>[<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/tactics/TA0040">TA0040</a>] <ul> <li><i>Data Encrypted for Impact</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1486">T1486</a>]</li> <li><i>Resource Hijacking</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1496">T1496</a>]</li> <li><i>System Shutdown/Reboot</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1529">T1529</a>]</li> <li><i>Disk Wipe: Disk Structure Wipe</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1561/002">T1561.002</a>]</li> </ul> </li> </ul> <h3>Mitigations</h3><p>CISA and FBI recommend think tank organizations apply the following critical practices to strengthen their security posture.</p> <h4>Leaders</h4> <ul> <li>Implement a training program to familiarize users with identifying social engineering techniques and phishing emails.</li> </ul> <h4>Users/Staff</h4> <ul> <li>Log off remote connections when not in use.</li> <li>Be vigilant against tailored spearphishing attacks targeting corporate and personal accounts (including both email and social media accounts).</li> <li>Use different passwords for corporate and personal accounts.</li> <li>Install antivirus software on personal devices to automatically scan and quarantine suspicious files.</li> <li>Employ strong multi-factor authentication for personal accounts, if available.</li> <li>Exercise caution when: <ul> <li>Opening email attachments, even if the attachment is expected and the sender appears to be known. See <a href="https://www.us-cert.gov/ncas/tips/ST04-010">Using Caution with Email Attachments</a>.</li> <li>Using removable media (e.g., USB thumb drives, external drives, CDs).</li> </ul> </li> </ul> <h4>IT Staff/Cybersecurity Personnel</h4> <ul> <li>Segment and segregate networks and functions.</li> <li>Change the default username and password of applications and appliances.</li> <li>Employ strong multi-factor authentication for corporate accounts.</li> <li>Deploy antivirus software on organizational devices to automatically scan and quarantine suspicious files.</li> <li>Apply encryption to data at rest and data in transit.</li> <li>Use email security appliances to scan and remove malicious email attachments or links.</li> <li>Monitor key internal security tools and identify anomalous behavior. Flag any known indicators of compromise or threat actor behaviors for immediate response.</li> <li>Organizations can implement mitigations of varying complexity and restrictiveness to reduce the risk posed by threat actors who use Tor (The Onion Router) to carry out malicious activities. See the CISA-FBI Joint Cybersecurity Advisory on <a href="https://us-cert.cisa.gov/ncas/alerts/aa20-183a">Defending Against Malicious Cyber Activity Originating from Tor</a> for mitigation options and additional information.</li> <li>Prevent exploitation of known software vulnerabilities by routinely applying software patches and upgrades. Foreign cyber threat actors continue to exploit publicly known—and often dated—software vulnerabilities against broad target sets, including public and private sector organizations. If these vulnerabilities are left unpatched, exploitation often requires few resources and provides threat actors with easy access to victim networks. Review CISA and FBI’s <a href="https://us-cert.cisa.gov/ncas/alerts/aa20-133a">Top 10 Routinely Exploited Vulnerabilities</a> and other CISA alerts that identify vulnerabilities exploited by foreign attackers.</li> <li>Implement an antivirus program and a formalized patch management process.</li> <li>Block certain websites and email attachments commonly associated with malware (e.g., .scr, .pif, .cpl, .dll, .exe).</li> <li>Block email attachments that cannot be scanned by antivirus software (e.g., .zip files).</li> <li>Implement Group Policy Object and firewall rules.</li> <li>Implement filters at the email gateway and block suspicious IP addresses at the firewall.</li> <li>Routinely audit domain and local accounts as well as their permission levels to look for situations that could allow an adversary to gain wide access by obtaining credentials of a privileged account.</li> <li>Follow best practices for design and administration of the network to limit privileged account use across administrative tiers.</li> <li>Implement a Domain-Based Message Authentication, Reporting &amp; Conformance (DMARC) validation system.</li> <li>Disable or block unnecessary remote services.</li> <li>Limit access to remote services through centrally managed concentrators.</li> <li>Deny direct remote access to internal systems or resources by using network proxies, gateways, and firewalls.</li> <li>Limit unnecessary lateral communications.</li> <li>Disable file and printer sharing services. If these services are required, use strong passwords or Active Directory authentication.</li> <li>Ensure applications do not store sensitive data or credentials insecurely.</li> <li>Enable a firewall on agency workstations, configured to deny unsolicited connection requests.</li> <li>Disable unnecessary services on agency workstations and servers.</li> <li>Scan for and remove suspicious email attachments; ensure any scanned attachment is its "true file type" (i.e., the extension matches the file header).</li> <li>Monitor users' web browsing habits; restrict access to suspicious or risky sites. Contact law enforcement or CISA immediately regarding any unauthorized network access identified.</li> <li>Visit the MITRE ATT&amp;CK techniques and tactics pages linked in the ATT&amp;CK Profile section above for additional mitigation and detection strategies for this malicious activity targeting think tanks.</li> </ul> <h3>Contact Information</h3><p>Recipients of this report are encouraged to contribute any additional information that they may have related to this threat. To report suspicious or criminal activity related to information found in this Joint Cybersecurity Advisory, contact your local FBI field office at <a href="http://www.fbi.gov/contact-us/field">www.fbi.gov/contact-us/field</a>, or the FBI’s 24/7 Cyber Watch (CyWatch) at (855) 292-3937 or by email at <a href="https://us-cert.cisa.govmailto:CyWatch@fbi.gov">CyWatch@fbi.gov</a>. When available, please include the following information regarding the incident: date, time, and location of the incident; type of activity; number of people affected; type of equipment used for the activity; the name of the submitting company or organization; and a designated point of contact. To request incident response resources or technical assistance related to these threats, contact CISA at <a href="https://us-cert.cisa.govmailto:Central@cisa.gov">Central@cisa.gov</a>.</p> <h3>References</h3> <ul> <li><a href="https://us-cert.cisa.gov/ncas/alerts/aa20-120a">CISA Alert: Microsoft Office 365 Security Recommendations</a></li> <li><a href="https://us-cert.cisa.gov/ncas/alerts/aa20-245a">CISA Alert: Technical Approaches to Uncovering and Remediating Malicious Activity</a></li> <li><a href="https://www.cisa.gov/telework">CISA Webpage: Telework Guidance</a></li> <li><a href="https://www.cisa.gov/vpn-related-guidance">CISA Webpage: VPN-Related Guidance</a></li> <li><a href="http://image.communications.cyber.nj.gov/lib/fe3e15707564047c7c1270/m/2/PIN+-+4.9.2020.pdf">FBI Private Industry Notification: PIN 20200409-001</a></li> </ul> <h3>References</h3> <ul> <li><a href="https://www.cyberscoop.com/european-think-tanks-hack-microsoft-fancy-bear-russia/">[1] CyberScoop: As Europe prepares to vote, Microsoft warns of Fancy Bear attacks on democratic think tanks</a></li> </ul> <h3>Revisions</h3> <ul> <li>Initial Version: December 1, 2020</li> </ul> <hr /> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><p class="privacy-and-terms">This product is provided subject to this <a href="https://us-cert.cisa.gov/privacy/notification">Notification</a> and this <a href="https://www.dhs.gov/privacy-policy">Privacy &amp; Use</a> policy.</p> </div>
Categories: Security Alerts

Cisco Expressway Software Unauthorized Access Information Disclosure Vulnerability

Cisco Security Advisories - Wed, 2020-11-18 16:00

A vulnerability in the Traversal Using Relays around NAT (TURN) server component of Cisco Expressway software could allow an unauthenticated, remote attacker to bypass security controls and send network traffic to restricted destinations.

The vulnerability is due to improper validation of specific connection information by the TURN server within the affected software. An attacker could exploit this issue by sending specially crafted network traffic to the affected software. A successful exploit could allow the attacker to send traffic through the affected software to destinations beyond the application, possibly allowing the attacker to gain unauthorized network access.

Cisco has released software updates that address this vulnerability. There are no workarounds that address this vulnerability.

This advisory is available at the following link:
https://tools.cisco.com/security/center/content/CiscoSecurityAdvisory/cisco-sa-Expressway-8J3yZ7hV


Security Impact Rating: Medium
CVE: CVE-2020-3482
Categories: Security Alerts

Cisco Secure Web Appliance Privilege Escalation Vulnerability

Cisco Security Advisories - Wed, 2020-11-18 16:00

A vulnerability in the log subscription subsystem of Cisco AsyncOS for the Cisco Secure Web Appliance (formerly Web Security Appliance) could allow an authenticated, local attacker to perform command injection and elevate privileges to root.

This vulnerability is due to insufficient validation of user-supplied input for the web interface and CLI. An attacker could exploit this vulnerability by authenticating to the affected device and injecting scripting commands in the scope of the log subscription subsystem. A successful exploit could allow the attacker to execute arbitrary commands on the underlying operating system and elevate privileges to root.

Cisco has released software updates that address this vulnerability. There are no workarounds that address this vulnerability.

This advisory is available at the following link:
https://tools.cisco.com/security/center/content/CiscoSecurityAdvisory/cisco-sa-wsa-prv-esc-nPzWZrQj


Security Impact Rating: High
CVE: CVE-2020-3367
Categories: Security Alerts

Cisco Webex Meetings API Cross-Site Scripting Vulnerability

Cisco Security Advisories - Wed, 2020-11-18 16:00

A vulnerability in an API of Cisco Webex Meetings could allow an unauthenticated, remote attacker to conduct cross-site scripting attacks.

The vulnerability is due to improper validation of user-supplied input to an application programmatic interface (API) within Cisco Webex Meetings. An attacker could exploit this vulnerability by convincing a targeted user to follow a link designed to submit malicious input to the API used by Cisco Webex Meetings. A successful exploit could allow the attacker to conduct cross-site scripting attacks and potentially gain access to sensitive browser-based information from the system of a targeted user.

Cisco has released software updates that address this vulnerability. There are no workarounds that address this vulnerability.

This advisory is available at the following link:
https://tools.cisco.com/security/center/content/CiscoSecurityAdvisory/cisco-sa-webex-meetings-xss-MX56prER


Security Impact Rating: Medium
CVE: CVE-2020-27126
Categories: Security Alerts

Cisco Webex Meetings and Cisco Webex Meetings Server Information Disclosure Vulnerability

Cisco Security Advisories - Wed, 2020-11-18 16:00

A vulnerability in Cisco Webex Meetings and Cisco Webex Meetings Server could allow an unauthenticated, remote attacker to view sensitive information from the meeting room lobby.

This vulnerability is due to insufficient protection of sensitive participant information. An attacker could exploit this vulnerability by browsing the Webex roster. A successful exploit could allow the attacker to gather information about other Webex participants, such as email address and IP address, while waiting in the lobby.

Cisco has released software updates that address this vulnerability. There are no workarounds that address this vulnerability.

This advisory is available at the following link:
https://tools.cisco.com/security/center/content/CiscoSecurityAdvisory/cisco-sa-webex-infodisc-4tvQzn4


Security Impact Rating: Medium
CVE: CVE-2020-3441
Categories: Security Alerts

Cisco Webex Meetings and Cisco Webex Meetings Server Unauthorized Audio Information Exposure Vulnerability

Cisco Security Advisories - Wed, 2020-11-18 16:00

A vulnerability in Cisco Webex Meetings and Cisco Webex Meetings Server could allow an unauthenticated, remote attacker to maintain bidirectional audio despite being expelled from an active Webex session.

The vulnerability is due to a synchronization issue between meeting and media services on a vulnerable Webex site. An attacker could exploit this vulnerability by sending crafted requests to a vulnerable Cisco Webex Meetings or Cisco Webex Meetings Server site. A successful exploit could allow the attacker to maintain the audio connection of a Webex session despite being expelled.

This advisory is available at the following link:
https://tools.cisco.com/security/center/content/CiscoSecurityAdvisory/cisco-sa-webex-info-leak-PhpzB3sG


Security Impact Rating: Medium
CVE: CVE-2020-3471
Categories: Security Alerts

Cisco Webex Meetings and Cisco Webex Meetings Server Ghost Join Vulnerability

Cisco Security Advisories - Wed, 2020-11-18 16:00

A vulnerability in Cisco Webex Meetings and Cisco Webex Meetings Server could allow an unauthenticated, remote attacker to join a Webex session without appearing on the participant list.

This vulnerability is due to improper handling of authentication tokens by a vulnerable Webex site. An attacker could exploit this vulnerability by sending crafted requests to a vulnerable Cisco Webex Meetings or Cisco Webex Meetings Server site. A successful exploit requires the attacker to have access to join a Webex meeting, including applicable meeting join links and passwords. The attacker could then exploit this vulnerability to join meetings, without appearing in the participant list, while having full access to audio, video, chat, and screen sharing capabilities.

This advisory is available at the following link:
https://tools.cisco.com/security/center/content/CiscoSecurityAdvisory/cisco-sa-webex-auth-token-3vg57A5r


Security Impact Rating: Medium
CVE: CVE-2020-3419
Categories: Security Alerts

Cisco Integrated Management Controller Multiple Remote Code Execution Vulnerabilities

Cisco Security Advisories - Wed, 2020-11-18 16:00

Multiple vulnerabilities in the API subsystem of Cisco Integrated Management Controller (IMC) could allow an unauthenticated, remote attacker to execute arbitrary code with root privileges.

The vulnerabilities are due to improper boundary checks for certain user-supplied input. An attacker could exploit these vulnerabilities by sending a crafted HTTP request to the API subsystem of an affected system. When this request is processed, an exploitable buffer overflow condition may occur. A successful exploit could allow the attacker to execute arbitrary code with root privileges on the underlying operating system (OS).

Cisco has released software updates that address these vulnerabilities. There are no workarounds that address these vulnerabilities.

This advisory is available at the following link:
https://tools.cisco.com/security/center/content/CiscoSecurityAdvisory/cisco-sa-ucs-api-rce-UXwpeDHd


Security Impact Rating: Critical
CVE: CVE-2020-3470
Categories: Security Alerts

Cisco Telepresence CE Software and RoomOS Software Unauthorized Token Generation Vulnerability

Cisco Security Advisories - Wed, 2020-11-18 16:00

A vulnerability in the xAPI service of Cisco Telepresence CE Software and Cisco RoomOS Software could allow an authenticated, remote attacker to generate an access token for an affected device.

The vulnerability is due to insufficient access authorization. An attacker could exploit this vulnerability by using the xAPI service to generate a specific token. A successful exploit could allow the attacker to use the generated token to enable experimental features on the device that should not be available to users.

Cisco has released software updates that address this vulnerability. There are no workarounds that address this vulnerability.

This advisory is available at the following link:
https://tools.cisco.com/security/center/content/CiscoSecurityAdvisory/cisco-sa-tp-uathracc-jWNESUfM


Security Impact Rating: Medium
CVE: CVE-2020-26068
Categories: Security Alerts

Cisco DNA Spaces Connector Command Injection Vulnerability

Cisco Security Advisories - Wed, 2020-11-18 16:00

A vulnerability in the web-based management interface of Cisco DNA Spaces Connector could allow an unauthenticated, remote attacker to execute arbitrary commands on an affected device.

The vulnerability is due to insufficient validation of user-supplied input in the web-based management interface. An attacker could exploit this vulnerability by sending crafted HTTP requests to the web-based management interface. A successful exploit could allow the attacker to execute arbitrary commands on the underling operating system with privileges of the web-based management application, which is running as a restricted user. This could result in changes being made to pages served by the web-based management application impacting the integrity or availability of the web-based management application.

Cisco has released software updates that address this vulnerability. There are no workarounds that address this vulnerability.

This advisory is available at the following link:
https://tools.cisco.com/security/center/content/CiscoSecurityAdvisory/cisco-sa-dna-cmd-injection-rrAYzOwc


Security Impact Rating: Critical
CVE: CVE-2020-3586
Categories: Security Alerts

Cisco IoT Field Network Director Cross-Site Scripting Vulnerabilities

Cisco Security Advisories - Wed, 2020-11-18 16:00

Multiple vulnerabilities in the web UI of Cisco IoT Field Network Director (FND) could allow an unauthenticated, remote attacker to conduct cross-site scripting (XSS) attacks against users on an affected system.

The vulnerabilities are due to insufficient validation of user-supplied input that is processed by the web UI. An attacker could exploit these vulnerabilities by persuading a user to click a crafted link. A successful exploit could allow the attacker to execute arbitrary script code in the context of the interface or access sensitive, browser-based information on an affected system.

Cisco has released software updates that address these vulnerabilities. There are no workarounds that address these vulnerabilities.

This advisory is available at the following link:
https://tools.cisco.com/security/center/content/CiscoSecurityAdvisory/cisco-sa-FND-XSS-NzOPCGEc


Security Impact Rating: Medium
CVE: CVE-2020-26081
Categories: Security Alerts

Cisco IoT Field Network Director Improper Domain Access Control Vulnerability

Cisco Security Advisories - Wed, 2020-11-18 16:00

A vulnerability in the user management functionality of Cisco IoT Field Network Director (FND) could allow an authenticated, remote attacker to manage user information for users in different domains on an affected system.

The vulnerability is due to improper domain access control. An attacker could exploit this vulnerability by manipulating JSON payloads to target different domains on an affected system. A successful exploit could allow the attacker to manage user information for users in different domains on an affected system.

Cisco has released software updates that address this vulnerability. There are no workarounds that address this vulnerability.

This advisory is available at the following link:
https://tools.cisco.com/security/center/content/CiscoSecurityAdvisory/cisco-sa-FND-UPWD-dCRPuQ78


Security Impact Rating: Medium
CVE: CVE-2020-26080
Categories: Security Alerts

Cisco IoT Field Network Director Information Disclosure Vulnerability

Cisco Security Advisories - Wed, 2020-11-18 16:00

A vulnerability in Cisco IoT Field Network Director (FND) could allow an unauthenticated, remote attacker to view sensitive database information on an affected device.

The vulnerability is due to the absence of authentication for sensitive information. An attacker could exploit this vulnerability by sending crafted curl commands to an affected device. A successful exploit could allow the attacker to view sensitive database information on the affected device.

Cisco has released software updates that address this vulnerability. There are no workarounds that address this vulnerability.

This advisory is available at the following link:
https://tools.cisco.com/security/center/content/CiscoSecurityAdvisory/cisco-sa-FND-SSI-V2myWX9y


Security Impact Rating: Medium
CVE: CVE-2020-26076
Categories: Security Alerts

Cisco IoT Field Network REST API Insufficient Input Validation Vulnerability

Cisco Security Advisories - Wed, 2020-11-18 16:00

A vulnerability in the REST API of Cisco IoT Field Network Director (FND) could allow an authenticated, remote attacker to gain access to the back-end database of an affected device.

The vulnerability is due to insufficient input validation of REST API requests that are made to an affected device. An attacker could exploit this vulnerability by crafting malicious API requests to the affected device. A successful exploit could allow the attacker to gain access to the back-end database of the affected device.

Cisco has released software updates that address this vulnerability. There are no workarounds that address this vulnerability.

This advisory is available at the following link:
https://tools.cisco.com/security/center/content/CiscoSecurityAdvisory/cisco-sa-FND-SQL-zEkBnL2h


Security Impact Rating: Medium
CVE: CVE-2020-26075
Categories: Security Alerts

Cisco IoT Field Network Director Unprotected Storage of Credentials Vulnerability

Cisco Security Advisories - Wed, 2020-11-18 16:00

A vulnerability in the web UI of Cisco IoT Field Network Director (FND) could allow an authenticated, remote attacker to obtain hashes of user passwords on an affected device.

The vulnerability is due to insufficient protection of user credentials. An attacker could exploit this vulnerability by logging in as an administrative user and crafting a call for user information. A successful exploit could allow the attacker to obtain hashes of user passwords on an affected device.

Cisco has released software updates that address this vulnerability. There are no workarounds that address this vulnerability.

This advisory is available at the following link:
https://tools.cisco.com/security/center/content/CiscoSecurityAdvisory/cisco-sa-FND-PWH-yCA6M7p


Security Impact Rating: Medium
CVE: CVE-2020-26079
Categories: Security Alerts

Cisco IoT Field Network Director File Overwrite Vulnerability

Cisco Security Advisories - Wed, 2020-11-18 16:00

A vulnerability in the file system of Cisco IoT Field Network Director (FND) could allow an authenticated, remote attacker to overwrite files on an affected system.

The vulnerability is due to insufficient file system protections. An attacker could exploit this vulnerability by crafting API requests and sending them to an affected system. A successful exploit could allow the attacker to overwrite files on an affected system.

Cisco has released software updates that address this vulnerability. There are no workarounds that address this vulnerability.

This advisory is available at the following link:
https://tools.cisco.com/security/center/content/CiscoSecurityAdvisory/cisco-sa-FND-OVW-SHzOE3Pd


Security Impact Rating: Medium
CVE: CVE-2020-26078
Categories: Security Alerts

Cisco IoT Field Network Director Improper Access Control Vulnerability

Cisco Security Advisories - Wed, 2020-11-18 16:00

A vulnerability in the access control functionality of Cisco IoT Field Network Director (FND) could allow an authenticated, remote attacker to view lists of users from different domains that are configured on an affected system.

The vulnerability is due to improper access control. An attacker could exploit this vulnerability by sending an API request that alters the domain for a requested user list on an affected system. A successful exploit could allow the attacker to view lists of users from different domains on the affected system.

Cisco has released software updates that address this vulnerability. There are no workarounds that address this vulnerability.

This advisory is available at the following link:
https://tools.cisco.com/security/center/content/CiscoSecurityAdvisory/cisco-sa-FND-LV-hE4Rntet


Security Impact Rating: Medium
CVE: CVE-2020-26077
Categories: Security Alerts

Cisco IoT Field Network Director Unauthenticated REST API Vulnerability

Cisco Security Advisories - Wed, 2020-11-18 16:00

A vulnerability in the REST API of Cisco IoT Field Network Director (FND) could allow an unauthenticated, remote attacker to access the back-end database of an affected system.

The vulnerability exists because the affected software does not properly authenticate REST API calls. An attacker could exploit this vulnerability by obtaining a cross-site request forgery (CSRF) token and then using the token with REST API requests. A successful exploit could allow the attacker to access the back-end database of the affected device and read, alter, or drop information.

Cisco has released software updates that address this vulnerability. There are no workarounds that address this vulnerability.

This advisory is available at the following link:
https://tools.cisco.com/security/center/content/CiscoSecurityAdvisory/cisco-sa-FND-BCK-GHkPNZ5F


Security Impact Rating: Critical
CVE: CVE-2020-3531
Categories: Security Alerts

Cisco IoT Field Network Director SOAP API Authorization Bypass Vulnerability

Cisco Security Advisories - Wed, 2020-11-18 16:00

A vulnerability in the SOAP API of Cisco IoT Field Network Director (FND) could allow an authenticated, remote attacker to access and modify information on devices that belong to a different domain.

The vulnerability is due to insufficient authorization in the SOAP API. An attacker could exploit this vulnerability by sending SOAP API requests to affected devices for devices that are outside their authorized domain. A successful exploit could allow the attacker to access and modify information on devices that belong to a different domain.

Cisco has released software updates that address this vulnerability. There are no workarounds that address this vulnerability.

This advisory is available at the following link:
https://tools.cisco.com/security/center/content/CiscoSecurityAdvisory/cisco-sa-FND-AUTH-vEypBmmR


Security Impact Rating: High
CVE: CVE-2020-26072
Categories: Security Alerts

Cisco IoT Field Network Director Missing API Authentication Vulnerability

Cisco Security Advisories - Wed, 2020-11-18 16:00

A vulnerability in the API of Cisco IoT Field Network Director (FND) could allow an unauthenticated, remote attacker to view sensitive information on an affected system.

The vulnerability exists because the affected software does not properly authenticate API calls. An attacker could exploit this vulnerability by sending API requests to an affected system. A successful exploit could allow the attacker to view sensitive information on the affected system, including information about the devices that the system manages, without authentication.

Cisco has released software updates that address this vulnerability. There are no workarounds that address this vulnerability.

This advisory is available at the following link:
https://tools.cisco.com/security/center/content/CiscoSecurityAdvisory/cisco-sa-FND-APIA-xZntFS2V


Security Impact Rating: High
CVE: CVE-2020-3392
Categories: Security Alerts

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